World of Science. Series: Sociology, Philology, Cultural Studies
World of Science. Series: Sociology, Philology, Cultural Studies

2022, Vol. 13, No. 2. - go to content...

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DOI: 10.15862/51FLSK222 (

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Pavlova I.P. [Methods of euphemistic substitution in taboo speech (based on the Yakut language)] World of Science. Series: Sociology, Philology, Cultural Studies, 2022, Vol. 13, No. 2. Available at: (in Russian). DOI: 10.15862/51FLSK222

Methods of euphemistic substitution in taboo speech (based on the Yakut language)

Pavlova Irina Petrovna
North-Eastern Federal University named after M.K. Ammosov, Yakutsk, Russia

Abstract. The article deals with the problem of linguistic taboos and euphemisms in the material of the Yakut language and Sakha culture. In the traditional culture of the Yakut people, the phenomenon of taboo led to the creation of substitute words in the language system, which are secondary nominations. Studying the mechanisms of their emergence, it is possible to study the interaction of human thinking, its language and the surrounding reality. The aim of our study was the means of euphemisms formation: an extensive dictionary of euphemisms, compiled by the author on the basis of several sources, is subjected to study. The various techniques of euphemistic substitution are identified primarily in terms of semantics. The euphemism and the tabooed word are linked in most cases by a metaphor based on figurative associations. At the same time, there is a transposition, which is based not only on semantic, but also on the functional juxtaposition of the linguistic units. Euphemisms are nominations based on metonymy, synecdoche, synonymy, antonymy, foreign words, dialectal and obsolete words are used as substitutes. The principles of synonymic and hyper-hyponymic substitution are also relevant. The latter are based on the logical periphrasis, an indirect descriptive designation of the object and phenomenon of reality. In most cases, the semantic components of euphemisms are related to the background knowledge of native speakers about a given reality. The cultural and historical background surrounding each word is an integral component of the meaning of the nomination. The presence of a special term kharys tyl in the Yakut language, naming protective words, i.e. euphemisms, demonstrates a special attitude to the word performing magical functions in the human collective.

Keywords: traditional culture; taboo; euphemism; charys tyl; trope; transposition; secondary nomination

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